Gum Treatment

Periodontal (Gum) Treatment:
Periodonsium refers to the tissues surrounding the tooth. And, periodontology is a branch of dentistry including the gum diseases and treatment. The terms used for gum inflammation are 'gingivitis' and ‘periodontitis.’

What is Gingivitis?
Gingivitis is the early stage of gum disease. It usually occurs in the absence of good oral hygiene. The gum becomes red, swollen, oedematous and haemorrhagic. The destruction of the alveolar bone supporting the teeth is not yet in question. The most important symptom is the spontaneous bleeding or bleeding caused by brushing. As tobacco use increases the amount of keratinization of the gum, it may conceal this disease by preventing bleeding, and thereby, the gingivitis of a patient without regular control may become more advanced.

What is Periodontitis?
Periodontitis is the advanced stage of gum disease. The red, swollen, oedematous and haemorrhagic state of the gum is continued, and the destruction of the jawbone supporting the teeth has started. This inflammatory status of the gum can be seen in young, adult or elderly individuals. It may be regional as well as influencing the whole mouth. Generally, it follows a more aggressive course in the young ones, and a more chronic course in the elderly, but these may vary. In periodontitis, the bone destructions occur in specific time intervals, intense stress and sadness, diabetes, smoking and alcohol use, teeth clenching habit, anatomical factors, instances when the resistance of the body decrease and pregnancy can be counted as factors helping the increase in bone destruction.

What Could Be the Result of Gum Disease?
In the long run, you might lose your teeth due to gum disease. Some people may encounter situations when their gums are swollen and bleed. Abscesses may occur, and in worse cases, inflammation may come out of the gum pockets and cause an unpleasant taste and bad breath. Following one of such symptoms, the manifestation may become chronical and the complaints may be reduced temporarily. However, if left untreated, change of places and wobble in the teeth start due to excessive bone loss. Although the periodontal diseases usually follow a slow course in terms of progress, there are also aggressive forms. The formation of bone loss enough to cause the wobble of the teeth by preventing the masticatory function varies depending on the severity of the disease. As the disease progresses, the treatment becomes more difficult.

Formation and Treatment of Gingivitis:
The main reason for the formation of inflammation of the gums is the accumulation of bacterial plaque in the dental regions adjacent to the gums. The bacteria begin to precipitate on the tooth due to poor oral hygiene and accumulate as plaque. The bacteria reproducing by dividing at an average of every 20 minutes, may cause gum bleeding by starting the inflammation of the gum within 2-4 days. If the bacteria accumulation is allowed to continue increasingly, the inflammation becomes built-in within about 21 days, and the bacteria have the ability even to start bone destruction by transforming from harmless species to harmful ones. And, the tartars forming in the mouth, result from the precipitation of the minerals onto the accumulated bacteria plaque. The sources of these minerals are what we eat, the saliva and gingival fluid. The accumulation of bacteria plaque would be prevented by the provision of a good oral hygiene. Thus, an inflammation of the gums and also the formation of tartar can be prevented. As the duration of existence in mouth of the bacteria plaque increases, it would cling more tightly to teeth and transform into tartar. In such a case, the professional help of a dentist should be sought. The most important thing to remember is that the gums should have a healthy structure before the prosthetic applications.

The gingivitis is often caused by improper oral hygiene. When a good oral care is made by the initial treatment including dental scaling, polishing and oral hygiene motivation, the disease is recycling. Untreated, gingivitis can become periodontitis. Over time, the plaque progresses towards the bottom of gums, the bacteria and toxins cause the start of chronic inflammation by irritating the gums, and the destruction of the bone supporting the teeth occurs. Thus, the gums are separated from the tooth, and gaps are formed between the tooth and the gum called periodontal pockets. As the disease becomes more severe, the gum pocket deepens and the gingival recession occurs due to more bone destruction. In advanced stages, the teeth wobble and become out of function. The wobbly teeth may need to be extracted even if they are not decayed. In the cases of periodontitis, subgingival curettage is made in addition to tooth scaling and polishing procedures. And, in more advanced cases where this treatment will be insufficient, periodontal surgical procedures are applied. It is the most important issue that the patient eliminates the bacteria plaque by showing full compliance with the hygiene rules in all aspects of treatment. Otherwise, the success rate of the treatment decreases.

Causes and Treatment Methods of Gingival Recessions:
The bacteria plaque is regarded as the main cause of gingival recession. The gingival recession occurs as a result of the gum disease caused by the bacteria plaque. The conducive factors facilitating the gingival recession are the chronic traumas the gums are exposed to, especially traumatic brushing, high muscle involvement, the position of the tooth and the tooth root, flood restorations, occlusal trauma, gingiva type, smoking and age. The treatment of gingival recessions includes the re-shaping of the loss in the region either by shifting the gingiva from neighboring regions or by taking graft from the patient’s palate (mucogingival surgical techniques).

Causes and Treatment Method of Gingival Growth:
Gingival growth may develop due to inflammation caused by bacteria, as well as by hormonal reasons (such as pregnancy and puberty), depending on the drug (nifedipine, cyclosporin A and phenytoin group drugs) or tumoral causes (good or bad-tempered). The treatment of gingival growth includes the processes of making the gingiva regain its former healthy borders by extracting the growing tissues, as well as elimination of the factors.

Flap Operation (Periodontal Surgery):
In cases when the periodontal pocket depth is 5 mm and over, it is required to make the flap operation in order to arrange the root surface and ensure convenient access to the inflamed area. Reaching into the area of the defect under direct vision, cleaning of the granulation tissues and especially reaching between the roots of molars are the most important advantages of the technique. The purpose of such surgical operations is to eliminate the periodontal pocket. Either the periodontal pockets are removed as excisional or a shallowing in pockets is provided by the regaining of the lost bones and support tissues by the guided tissue regeneration application (graft + membrane application).


The screws placed in place of the lost teeth with the aim of treatment are called implants. The main objective of dentistry is to replace the lost teeth as functioally and aesthetically similar to natural teeth. The implants are placed into the jawbone by a simple surgical procedure under local anesthesia.

Porcelain Veneers

One of the oldest methods used to eliminate the tooth losses is to make use of veneers. Although the use of implants has become widespread in current standards, the porcelain veneers also have advantages in some cases. Until recently, Biodental veneers were made, which are a kind of plastic over a metal infrastructure.

Contact Us

Capa Orthodontics
Tel: (0212) 587 24 24 - 529 03 00
Sehremini Mahallesi, Deniz Abdal Cami Sk. 23/A Capa-Fatih, Istanbul